Image Segmentation is a technique to group an image into units or categories that are homogeneous with respect to one or more characteristics. This book highlights the various segmentation techniques that brings together the current development on segmentation and explores the potentiality of those techniques in segmenting High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing (RS) Satellite Images. It also provides an insight about the existing mathematical methods and its application to image segmentation. Special emphasis has been given on Holder exponent (HE). HE is a well-established technique for texture analysis. But it is computationally complex and time consuming. This book proposes a HE based method for segmenting high spatial resolution images. The method adequately segments complex images containing textured regions as well as non-textured regions. The audience for this book includes practitioners in the pattern recognition and image analysis communities, practitioners in the Remote sensing communities, and the broader audience of scientific professionals.